The Reluctant Barista: Milk Frothing Madness

Milk Frothing TechniqueHow many how-to-froth-milk videos have you watched? They make it look so easy! While my espresso shots are really improving, I still have a hard time getting milk to the right consistency for a perfect latte. My lack of consistent consistency makes me a little grumpy...even mad. If frothing milk makes you grumpy too, then follow along as I try to de-mystify microfoam. It is time for FROTHING MADNESS!

First things first, while you can use the words froth and foam interchangeably, what we are after is the ever elusive microfoam. The manner in which milk is heated produces different results. Microfoam is smooth and velvety with a texture almost like wet paint because very tiny bubbles are incorporated evenly throughout the liquid. The foam I most often produce is heated milk with a bubbly volcano of erupted meringue dolloped on top. This is not microfoam.

The more you practice on one home espresso machine, the more you get to know the timing involved. This is one of my problems. I froth milk on different machines. Teri in customer service tried to console me. She said, “just when you thought you had steaming down on one machine, you try another machine and it steams totally different! ...or someone changes your steam tip from a two-hole to a four-hole!” (Which totally happens around here but probably doesn’t happen at your house.)

You are probably familiar with the basics of milk frothing:

  • Start with a chilled stainless steel milk frothing pitcher and cold milk.
  • Submerge the steam wand, start to froth, then lower the pitcher until just the steam tip is submerged. The milk should move in a circular pattern.
  • Plunge the wand lower into the pitcher and continue to roll the milk.
  • Stop at your desired temperature.

While this sounds well and good, let’s explore how this works in real-life situations with three very different home espresso machines. Armed with some additional tricks from my barista friends, we can learn together!

Rocket EvoluzioneRocket Giotto Evoluzione - A heat exchanger espresso machine with a large 60oz boiler

Espresso machine repair tech, Bryan, gave me some great advice. First, whole milk froths best. Second, on a larger espresso machine like this one, plunge the wand a few seconds sooner than you think it will take. It only took 35 seconds to froth 6 ounces of milk to 165F. I found this out the hard way because at 40 seconds it was up to 170F and the milk smelled scalded. Because it happens so fast, it is hard to make adjustments. I grabbed a gallon of milk and kept trying until I got it just right.

Breville InfuserBreville Infuser - A home espresso machine with a thermoblock

Matthew Hodson, a Seattle-area professional barista, shared this via Twitter “Experiment to find the spot where the milk and foam spin in a whirlpool and integrate. Only aerate briefly (count 1,2,3 quickly) and then spend the rest of the time integrating with the whirlpool.” It took 1:15 to get 6 ounces of milk to 165F. This was enough time to experiment with different adjustments. With some extra time and careful attention spent tilting and pivoting the frothing pitcher around the steam wand, this technique produced good results.

Saeco Via VeneziaSaeco Via Venezia - A single boiler with less than 8oz capacity

To get quality milk frothing from a smaller espresso machine requires every trick in the book. Make sure the espresso machine is on and pre-heated. Clear the steam wand (or in this case the panarello) into the drip tray until it is all steam with no water. Note where the air intake hole is on the panarello sleeve and keep it even with the level of the milk in the pitcher, not above or below. Froth one drink at a time, in this case 6 ounces took 1 minute to steam but was still very bubbly.

Lastly, Miranda in customer service told me you can try to “fix” milk frothing madness by softly tapping the frothing pitcher on the counter and swirling it in a circle repeatedly to try to eliminate big bubbles and incorporate the little bubbles back into the mix. Don’t try to re-heat or re-froth the milk. When all else fails keep these two important adages in mind,
1) Don’t cry over spilt milk
2) Tis a lesson you should heed, If at first you don't succeed, Try try again.

Rocket Espresso Steam Tips

4 thoughts on “The Reluctant Barista: Milk Frothing Madness”

  • Debi Wong

    Any ideas on frothing soy milk? Use a Silvia at my wor residence and a Quick Mill Andreja HX unit at home.

    • Brenna

      Hi Debi,

      Frothing soy milk is similar to frothing regular milk, however it is important that you do not get soy milk as hot as you would regular milk, or it will do weird things like curdle or separate. If you are someone who froths their milk by holding the bottom of the pitcher until it is too hot to touch, you need to stop frothing your soy milk before you reach the too hot to touch point or the milk will overheat.

      It definitely takes more practice to froth soy milk, but it is possible to do. Another tip is use an espresso machine that doesn't have too much steaming power, so the soy milk won't overheat. I hope that helps, let me know if you have any other questions.


  • Jeannette

    Hi! I've bought a Saeco Poemia with a stainless steel pannarello. Is it really possible to get any usable microfoam for latte art from this machine? Could you please post us a video on the correct pannarello technique you describe? Thanks in advance!

    • Kaylie

      Thanks for the suggestion! You won’t necessarily be able to get a lot of usable microfoam with a panarello. The convenient thing about a panarello is that you will get more like a “wet cappuccino” every time from a panarello, or more of a mix of a dry cappuccino foam and microfoam. If you’re wanting to try to pour more of a latte art, you can certainly try to burst the larger bubbles, and keep the smaller bubbles incorporated into the milk. To do this, read this short article, but keep in mind that working the milk after you’re done will be your best friend, meaning swirling the milk vigorously and banging it on the counter to break up the larger bubbles. Hope this helps!

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