The Lowdown on Distilled Water

A common inquiry we receive is in regard to the type of water customers should use in their coffee making equipment. Some folks think that distilled water will be their best bet, as they won't have to worry about scale build up or performing descaling procedures for the life of the machine. While there seems to be as many supporters as there are detractors regarding whether or not it's healthy for the human body, we do know that distilled water is not healthy for your machine. Seriously!

First up, let's talk about your equipment. Putting water that has a lack of ions or mineral content through equipment that is basically composed of minerals (stainless steel, copper, nickel, brass, etc.) means the water will take that opportunity to take on ions from the surrounding space, contributing to a slow breakdown of those materials. It will essentially leach minerals out of the metal components and degrade the machine's performance over time. Additionally, there are several models of machines on the market (such as the Rockets) that use a minor electrical charge to determine if there is water in the reservoir. If there aren't enough minerals in the water to conduct that charge, the machine's sensor will report that the reservoir is empty.

Now, let's talk about the coffee. The Specialty Coffee Association of America performed extensive testing and found that the ideal mineral balance is 150 parts per million (ppm). Coffee produced with water that contains this level of hardness is better balanced and a smoother cup. A lower mineral content allows for too much available space, often resulting in an overextraction and a bitter flavor. Conversely, water with a higher mineral content won't have enough available space, so coffee will be underextracted and possibly more sour. As distilled water has hardly any mineral content (roughly 9ppm), using it for coffee preparation will result in a bitter cup.

We often say that you should use water that you like to drink to make your coffee -- after all, coffee is over 98% water. Another option is to use softened water, which encapsulates the minerals, maintaining their structure within the water while prohibiting their ability to adhere to internal components. This can give you the best of both worlds: A smooth and balanced cup of coffee while also reducing the overall maintenance for the life of the machine.

23 thoughts on “The Lowdown on Distilled Water”

  • John Parkinson
    John Parkinson April 7, 2012 at 3:28 am

    I use distilled water as part of the cleaning process (after running Cleancaf or Durgol) through my Technivorm. Now I wonder if this is also a bad idea. I use bottled mineral water for coffee. Yum.

    By the way, really enjoy the videos!

    • Kat

      Well, I would suggest that you rinse with the mineral water; even though you're using a minor amount of distilled water in the system, it will slowly leach minerals from the metallic internals over time ... and could have a minor adverse impact on the machine's lifetime performance.

      - Kat

  • Keith Wonderly

    I have to disagree with the degradation theory represented in the blog. running distilled water through components will not rob ions from those components. Water likes to be balanced in its natural state and this means that distilled water, which is low on ions, will try and add ions to itself to achieve that goal. the distilled water will grab ions from everything it touches that can be dissolved or absorbed. The components inside your coffee maker are not made from anything that could be dissolved or absorbed. Heating tubes are generally constructed from aluminum tubing, and the tubing and misc valves are typically constructed of ABS plastic. neither could be dissolved by the distilled water.

    • Kat

      Hi Keith -

      Thanks for sharing your opinion. The majority of machines we sell actually feature copper or brass boilers and distilled/deionized water does pit them over time, as well as having an adverse affect on heating elements. I agree that distilled water won't have an impact on waterworks that are largely constructed of plastic, but for the majority of the home and commercial machines we sell, it does. Also, it doesn't produce a balanced cup of coffee so we can't recommend using it for that reason alone :D


      • Peter Lee

        Your anecdote regarding distilled water causing more "pit" in copper or brass boilers is flawed. Both copper & brass (copper +zinc) tarnish & develop a patina when exposed to ANY kind of water H20 at the surface level, but distilled water nor any other would not "pit" them, nor damage them meaningfully over even hundreds of years. The damage is from the SITW, not the water itself.

        The oft mentioned "studies" purporting to reveal that "water for coffee should have a TDS of about 150ppm" is pseudoscience garbage based on subjective grading of taste scores - votes & surveys are not science. TDS or even conductivity are only gross measures showing that "something" is in there - it could be minerals like calcium, phosphorus, sodium, etc. But it could also be and often are things like heavy metals, radioactive substances, pharmaceuticals, microbes, and other SITW. For whatever reason, some people may prefer the taste of water that smells of garbage & pollution, but it certainly isn't better for you and there are NO STUDIES of scientific merit that shows detrimental caffeine extraction rates with distilled or deionized water over polluted tap or mineralized water. In fact there are many meritorious studies showing the benefits of using distilled and deionized water in maximally extracting caffeine compared to "tap" water or other nonpure water (j.foodchem.2008.07.033 among many). If you feel pure water (R/O,D/I, distilled) makes coffee bitter by overly extracting caffeine compared to using unpure water, simply reduce the extraction times - it makes coffee faster then. But in fact this is another myth - pure water does NOT make coffee bitter, as anyone who uses 0 conductivity water can tell you. 0 conductivity water can only improve coffee brewing, not make it worse - one of these days nonscientific bodies like the National Coffee Association and others will get this topic right, once their preconceived biases based on opinions of so-called coffee experts are laid to rest.

        • Jack Denman

          To Peter Lee,

          Thanks for a good explanation. It goes without saying that distilled water will lengthen the life of the machine that will never need cleaning. The buildup of Calcium and Magnesium salts from anything but distilled water will clog the machine and make necessary the cleaning with corrosive chemicals that can and will pit metals and is not completely effective is removing it all without complete disassembly which owners will not do.

          You have exposed a bunch of old wives tales.

          Jack Denman

        • Davy de Verteuil
          Davy de Verteuil November 2, 2014 at 10:55 am

          Thanks for the lesson on Chem...its precise

        • MRT

          Peter Lee literally just dropped the mic on this entire article. Bravo.

        • Sandra


    • Lee Lemmon

      Lol, sorry keith

  • joey

    Ahh, now I can brew my coffee with distilled water and have peace of mind. Thank you and have a great day!

  • Karl

    Just ran across this site while looking to find out about distilled water in my coffee maker. I drink distilled water rather than tap on a regular basis. I dont know who Kat is, or what kind of expensive sounding coffee makers she sells, but she certainly became quiet after these replies to her assertations. Apparently she has no valid points to refudiate with. Thanks for all the info, glad to hear I can use distilled in my new maker.

    • Felicia Kloewer
      Felicia Kloewer March 14, 2016 at 3:01 am

      Hi, Karl!
      We recommend checking your manufacturer's manual and reading what they recommend when it comes to water hardness. Some machines need water with minerals in order to register that there is water in the tank, so in this case filtered water would be best. As this post mentions, we want you to be aware that over time the lack of minerals from water such as distilled can affect your machine.
      I hope that helps and enjoy your new coffee maker!

  • James Gerber

    Filtered water would add more taste to your coffee. Using filtered water is a good health practice. Thanks for your sharing!

  • Joel Alabastro

    I have used distilled water for 15 years in a Starbucks barista eapresso maker Saeco brand) with no problems whatsoever. There is no chemistry behind the claim that distilled water will damage metals. I also used mineral or purified water where calcium is not in the minerals because that is where the chemistry and science make sense. Calcium will stick to components and clogged flowlines in 3 months here in Sugar Land, TX.

  • Christian Kläy
    Christian Kläy June 15, 2019 at 11:51 pm

    Although Peter's response is correct regarding scientific facts (thanks for that), it discounts too heavily the "taste" factor which is paramount for most people who drink coffee.

    I will most likely start using distilled water in my espresso machine. If I want to experiment with taste and various mineral contents, I can always add them after the brewing process.

  • george durbin
    george durbin June 25, 2019 at 3:29 am

    I have owned 3 very inexpensive coffee makers in 40 years due to distilled water... The quality of Coffee and Tea is outstanding... If you use distilled water, you can use nearly half as much coffee or tea... The distilled water extracts the true flavor from the coffee and tea... So much so you might change brands for another that tastes better! Fresh grind is the way to go...

  • Ann

    I have researched the best water to drink and cook with and without any reservation, the only true way to stay healthy is to drink purified water by a distillation process, with so many pollutants and chemicals being used worldwide, there vis no certain way to know what is coming through our taps.
    Minerals have been filtered out off treated with chemicals before it arrives in our kitchen. Coffee and tea has to true to taste. Happy to share my research.

  • Mort

    The mineral content of Boiler feed water in industrial boilers is adjusted to prevent corrosion of the boiler tubes by overly pure water. It will indeed dissolve metal piping over time. Having said that, I have an 18 year old Barista I use twice daily with distilled water. I took a risk, balancing shortened boiler life against the need to de-scale. So far, no downside.

  • Ray

    Interesting discussion, BUT, in the end, it will ultimately come down to which water makes the best tasting coffee (except for those machines that won't work with distilled water, but that's a mute point in those cases). Of course, that is totally subjective. Some people may notice a difference, some won't. Best is to just run each through your machine and decide whether you personally prefer the mineral water over the distilled to justify having to de-scale it regularly. I do, but my wife can not notice any difference whatsoever (so guess who gets stuck with the de-scaling task?), LOL.

  • Mark

    Here is a journal article that investigates how different cations interact in the coffee brewing process.

    J. Agric. Food Chem. 2014, 62, 4947−4950

  • Jerry Brandt

    After using a Keurig for many years I just notice when I bought a mini plus that it says do not use distilled water. After research I realized that Keurig stands to loose extra revenue if you use distilled water. It is all i ever use and my larger Keurig machine has lasted over 5 years. I never needed to clean it or change a filter. I read where it says you coffee will taste bitter if you use distilled water. Well the reason why I use distilled water or even zero water is because I dont want chemicals in my coffee. If I wanted that I could go get a crappy cup of coffee at the local fast food burger place. I do not plan on putting chemicals in my coffee because it supposedly taste better. I love my coffee with my distilled water. I AM not changing. If you told me distilled water will reduce the life of my machine then so be it. This is a marketing scam. My last Keurig lasted for years and still works. Just leaks at the bottom at times and I put it in storage for the smaller mini. I rather stay healthy than have chemicals in my coffee.

  • Luposian

    I have been using distilled water for years now, with my Breville Barista Express and have had zero issues. No leaking water tank, no scale buildup to remove, etc. With 7-day “post roast” beans, I’ve discovered the smoothest, non-bitter, shot of espresso ever! Couldn’t believe it! I thought espresso simply WAS bitter by nature!

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